What are the mechanism of disease and the risk factor for disease?
MECHANISMS OF DISEASE:
Genetic mechanism - altered or mutated genes that can produce abnormal proteins to be made. These uncharacteristic proteins often do not complete their intended function, resulting in the skiving of an essential function. On the other hand, such proteins may carry out an abnormal, disruptive function. Either luggage may be a threat to the constancy of the body's internal environment.
Pathogenic organisms and particles - tons important disorders that are cause by pathogenic (disease-causing) organisms or particles that despoil the body in some passageway. An organism that lives in or on another organism to get your hands on its nutrients is called a parasite. The presence of microscopic or larger vermin may interfere with commonplace body functions of the host and cause disease. Besides lice, there are organisms that poison or otherwise twist the human body to cause disease.
Tumors and cancer - exceptional tissue growths or neoplasms that can cause assorted physiological disturbances.
Physical and chemical agents - agents such as toxic or destructive chemicals, extreme heat or cold, powered injury, and radiation that can affect the normal homeostasis of the body.
Malnutrition - insufficient or imbalanced intake of nutrients that explanation a variety of diseases.
Autoimmunity - some diseases result from the immune system attacking the body (autoimmunity) or from mistakes or overreactions of the immune response.
Inflammation - adjectives response of the body to disturbances, known as the inflammatory response. The inflammatory response is a conventional mechanism that usually speeds recouping from an infection or injury. However, when the inflammatory response occurs at indecorous times or is abnormally prolonged or severe, everyday tissues may become damaged. Thus some disease symptoms are cause by the inflammatory response.
Degeneration - breaking apart, or degeneration, of tissues by means of masses still unknown processes. Although a normal consequence of aging, degeneration of one or more tissues resulting from disease can come about at any time.
Genetic factors - There are several types of genetic risk factor. Sometimes, an inherited trait puts a soul at a greater than normal risk for developing a specific disease. For example, light-skinned individuals are more at risk for developing certain forms of skin cancer than are dark-skinned ancestors. This occurs because light-skinned ethnic group have smaller quantity pigment in their skin to protect them from cancer-causing ultraviolet radiation. Membership contained by a certain ethnic group or gene pool involves the "risk" of inheriting a disease-causing gene explicitly common within that gene pool. For example, certain Africans and their descendants are at a greater-than-average risk of inheriting sickle-cell anemia - a toxic blood disorder.
Age - Biological and behavioral variations during different phases of the human time cycle put us at greater risk for developing certain disease at sure times in life span. For example, middle ear infections are more common contained by infants than in adults because of the difference contained by ear structure at different ages.
Lifestyle - The way we live and work can put us at risk for some disease. People whose work or personal flurry puts them in direct sunlight for long period have a greater casual of developing skin cancer because they are in more frequent contact near ultraviolet radiation from the sun. Some researchers believe that the high-fat, low-fiber diet common among individuals in the "developed" nation increases their risk of developing certain cancer.
Stress - Physical, psychological, or emotional stress can put one at risk of developing problems such as headache, chronic high blood pressure (hypertension), depression, heart disease, and cancer. Conditions cause by psychological factors are sometimes call psychogenic ("mind-caused") disorders.
Environmental factors - Although environmental factor such as climate and pollution can cause injury or disease, some environmental situations simply put us at greater risk for getting consistent diseases. For example, because some parasites survive solely in tropical environments, we are not at risk for diseases cause by those particular organisms if we live surrounded by a temperate climate.
Preexisting conditions - A preexisting disease, such as an infection, can adversely affect our size to defend ourselves against further attack. Thus a primary (preexisting) condition can put a soul at risk of developing a secondary condition. For example, blisters from a preexisting burn may break expand and thus increase the risk of a bacterial infection of the skin.
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