What are antigens and antiserums as they relate to human blood?

Antigens in quotation to the ABO Blood Group to which your first question be based are:

Found on the red blood cell membrane. They are marker that are genetically coded for to determine your blood type. To try to explain in a simpler form let say that "A" blood type associates have "A's" on the surface of their red blood cell. "B" blood group people own " B's " on their red blood cells. That would mingy that "AB" blood group would have both "A's and B 's" on the surface of their red blood cell. Group "O" is a little different because those red blood cell don't have any antigens on their red blood cell surfaces.

Because the body doesn't want to do reduce to rubble to itself it recognizes parts of your body as self and it won't cause antibodies to something it shouldn't. So an "A" blood group person won't product anti-A because it would attach to their own red blood cells and raison d`¨ētre harm but they will manufacture antibodies to what the body/blood doesn't have.

A little milieu information for you. In a person's blood there are "red blood cells" "white blood cell and platelets" which are solids and the liquid cog of the blood is called serum. In the serum is where on earth the antibodies are. When blood is taken the cells will settle out to the bottom of the tube and the serum will be on the top. The serum colour looks almost approaching ginger ale. It is the red blood cells themselves that administer blood the red colour.

Group A - has "A" antigens on their red blood cell and anti-B antibodies in their serum
Group B - have "B" antigens on their red blood cells and anti-A antibodies surrounded by their serum
Group AB - has "A" and "B" antigens on their red blood cell and no antibodies in their serum
Group O - have no antigens on their red blood cells and have anti-A and anti-B and anti-AB antibodies in their serum

When grouping a those blood to see what types of antigens there are on the surface you would use "antiserums". Antiserums are antibodies within serum that are purified and very specific. Antigen and Antibody reaction are very specific to start near meaning that it is approaching a lock and key. Only the right knob can open a lock. So Anti-A antiserum is resembling a key that have an "A" on the end of it and it can simply fit on an "A" antigen. Earlier I said think of "A" antigens on a red blood cell as little "A's" all over the cell surface. If we add on anti-A antiserum the "A's" on the end of the antibodies will attach specifically to the "A's" on the red blood cell surface. When they "A" antibodies surrounded by the antiserum attach to the "A's" on the red blood cell surface it causes the red blood cell to clump together which is a positive reaction and later we know the red blood cells enjoy "A's" on them and the person would be classified as a Group A.

Antiserums - or antibodies within liquid serum - can be made by injecting another species near human antigens and have the non human species produce antibodies to the human antigens. The non human species make antibodies to human antigens because it is foreign to them and their immune system is doing what it is supposed to do. The antibodies are then extracted and purified for use. Usually mice, rabbits, horses, etc. are used.

But for ABO blood grouping the easiest source for antiserums are the other blood groups. An "A" party makes anti-B. A "B" being makes anti-A. An "O" individual makes anti-A, anti-B and anti-AB which the lab can use along next to purchased/manufactured antiserums.

I hope I helped you some.
An antigen is a (usually) foreign objects to whick an immune response.

Antiserum is blood serum from an animal that has be challenged next to an antigen and has circulating antibodies.
An antigen can be any foreign body such as microbes, fungi or a virus that enters the host and provokes the host's human immune system their by the host respond to the antigen by producing antibodies specific to it.

The anti serum is used surrounded by the vaccination process inorder to inoculate. The anti serum is taken from any animal in its recovering stage from a disease for which the vaccine is individual prepared . For eg: for the vaccination against tetanus, the anti tetanus serum(ATS) is used which is obtain from the horse serum.
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